Reforestation (Broadleaf forests)

Planting broad leaved forest in the spruce mono cultures or in other pioneer forests. We provide step by step forest transition to initial forest using native tree species or Potential Native Vegetation (PNV) concept. By broad leaved tree planting we can speed up ecological succession to reach the climax forest.
By planting native species you will also create local seed source for further tree spread in adjacent woodlands .

Spruce monocultures to broad leaved forest
Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a most planted tree in the Nothern Europe forest today. Mainly spruce are planted in monocultures and by spruce was replaced initial broad leaved forest. Today climate is changing and spruce forest are under risk of wind and spruce beetle (Ips typographus). In the the northern broad leaved forest we can grow more than 20 native tree species and adapt them to local micro-climate, soil and topography.

Alder wood
Black alder (Alnus glutinosa)
is a wetland specie and can be planted to restore wetlands, in the wet parts of forest... Could be an alternative to ditching.
Grey alder (Alnus incana) is a short living pioneer tree on abandoned agriculture land. Grey alder stands are suitable for transition to broad leaved forest in combination by planting and natural succession.

Definitions and diagnostic species of European broad-leaved forest and Eurosiberian alderwood


  1. Site assessment to gather land historical use, micro climate, soil, water, vegetation data (flora lists),
  2. Highlight existing forest structures with high biodiversity importance and what should be kept as they are,
  3. Make a Potential natural vegetation assessment base on local native forest areas and flora lists
  4. Proposal about potential tree planting scenarios
  5. Plants and planting management.

Plant protection
Most of broad leaf trees in the northern Europe are susceptible to deer browsing. To speed up forest stand establishment planted areas need to be fenced or plants need to have individual protection. Fencing part or whole plantation will significantly speed up tree growth and further seed dispersal. 

Why go native?
Native plants play a vital role in the health of forest ecosystem by supporting biodiversity and wildlife. Native species are adapted to climate, forest local environment and are better suited to our native wildlife. A native landscape is a living landscape with a wide assortment of beneficial insects, birds and pollinators that create a balanced system.

A native plant is “a plant...that has evolved in a given place over a period of time sufficient to develop complex and essential relationships with the physical environment and other organisms in a given ecological community.”  Rick Darke & Doug Tallamy, “The Living Landscape”

Ecological succession
This is the process by which the combination of species and habitats in an area changes over time. Gradually, these communities replace each other until a “climax community” – such as a mature forest – is reached, or until a disturbance, such as a fire, occurs. Ecological succession is a fundamental concept in ecology.